The area of Arachova is ancient history. It is full of ancient settlements, dating back to 1200 BC, and scattered traces of antiquity from Parnassus to Zemeno and below to the valley of Pleistou. At Korykeio Andro, the oldest traces are aged back to the Neolithic period (3000, for example, approximately). On the west side of Arachova was Anemoreia or Anemoleia, a homeric town, such as is Kyparissos, located in the east of Arachova. Lykoreia, an ancient town high on Parnassus, takes us back to the times of the Great Flooding. Then in Liakoura, the most high peak of the mountain (2457 m) stood still the ark of Defkaliona and Pyrra, who gave birth to Hellin, the fisrt of the Hellenic race. But the name Parnassos itself, a prohellenic word, brings us to the depths of time, before 2000 BC.
The first traces of occupation in the Arachova are found in the form of settlements on the hill "Koumoulas" Parnassus, where there are relics Middle (1,900 - 1,600 BC) and Late hellenic period (1,600 - 1,100 BC), and at the “Kastrouli” of Zemenos (Late hellenic years) and at " Kastroulia ¨ , low near the river Pleistos.
The area of Arachova in antiquity (after the 10th century BC) was in Phocis and the habitation is thick, particularly in the classic (500 - 300 BC), Hellenistic (300 - 100 BC) and Roman times (100 BC 400 BC) in two major cities in “Paliopyrgo” and “Nekrotafeio” and, in the form of small settlements, in wider areas of Parnassus, “Pania” and “Elaiwna”.
In the area of “Pania” there is also the old-christianic settlement (4th 7th century AD), characterized by the existence of three one-room temples. The habituation of the area is continued in the same settlement until the Middle years (l0os - llos AD) and then moved to the site of the current settlement. The French historian Pouqueville says that Arachova in the 13th century was ruled by a noble of the family de Nolse. Also Kyriacos traveler from Ancona in 1435, who passed through Arachova says that the city was highly populated.